The Tankan Survey is an economic survey of Japanese business issued by the Bank of Japan, which it then uses to formulate monetary policy.

The Tankan survey is a quarterly assessment of business conditions in Japan. The results of the survey are issued by the Central Bank of Japan and used to formulate the nation's monetary policy.

The survey is conducted among Japanese businesses. A reading greater than 0 represents favorable conditions, while a number less than 0 represents unfavorable conditions.

The Tankan survey indicated that business conditions were negative for most of the period between 1991 to 2000, a time of prolonged economic stagnation in Japan that was also known as the Lost Decade.