The cost of buying or selling a financial instrument.
Transaction costs refer to the costs involved in market exchange. These include the costs of discovering market prices and the costs of writing and enforcing contracts.
Transaction cost economics, as developed primarily by economists Coase and Williamson, suggests that economic organizations emerge from cost-minimizing behaviour (including transaction costs) in a world of limited information and opportunism. Transaction-cost analysis has been used to explain vertical integration, multinational enterprises, and franchising.
Glossary of Industrial Organisation Economics and Competition Law, compiled by R. S. Khemani and D. M. Shapiro, commissioned by the Directorate for Financial, Fiscal and Enterprise Affairs, OECD, 1993.