The Overnight Reverse Repurchase Agreement Facility (ON RRP) is a monetary policy tool used by the Federal Reserve to help control short-term interest rates and manage market liquidity.
It involves transactions between the Federal Reserve and eligible financial institutions, such as banks, money market funds, and other institutional investors.
What is the Overnight Reverse Repo (ON RRP) Facility?
In an overnight reverse repurchase transaction, the Fed sells Treasury bonds to eligible financial institutions and agrees to repurchase them at a predetermined price the next day.
Effectively, the Fed borrows cash from these institutions overnight in exchange for collateral in the form of Treasury securities.
The interest rate the Fed pays for these transactions is called the issuance rate and is determined by the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). This interest rate serves as the lower limit for short-term interest rates and affects the overall market interest rate.
ON How does RRP affect market liquidity?
ON RRP plays an important role in shaping market liquidity and maintaining currency market stability. Its impact on market liquidity includes:
Drain excess reserves
By allowing financial institutions to lend excess reserves to the Federal Reserve, the ON RRP helps eliminate excess liquidity in the banking system, thereby reducing the overall supply of reserves available for lending in the money markets.
Establish a lower limit on short-term interest rates
The interest rate offered by the ON RRP acts as a floor on short-term interest rates, ensuring that financial institutions do not lend in the market at lower rates than they can earn through the ON RRP.
Stabilize money market interest rates
During periods of market stress or volatility, ON RRP can help stabilize money market rates by providing financial institutions with risk-free investment options, thereby reducing the potential for money market rate disruptions.
Supplement other monetary policy tools
ON The RRP is used in conjunction with other monetary policy tools, such as the interest rate on reserve balances (IORB rate), to maintain control over short-term interest rates and manage liquidity conditions in the financial system.