What is a Dust transaction?
Dust transactions are transactions for minuscule amounts of bitcoin. A TX is considered "dust" when the value is lower than the cost of spending it. Dust transactions are uneconomic and considered "spammy" to the network.
Origin of the Dust
During the creation of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto was able to foresee situations on the network to protect it from DoS attacks and spam. This was how he introduced a series of measures to avoid this situation. This is the reason why the payment fees. Commissions that users pay to use the network to incentivize the work of miners.
Among these protections, one, in particular, took care that the transactions were large enough to guarantee the payment of the transmission and verification fee in the network. This was the first protection against dust in Bitcoin. In the source code Released by Nakamoto, within the primary function of Bitcoin was the function GetMinFee. This function is responsible for ensuring the minimum fees for each transaction. In the code as a note of its operation, Nakamoto commented:
Transaction fee requirements, only primarily necessary to control overflow. Below 10K (about 80 entries) is free for the first 100 transactions. The base rate is 0.01 per KB.
Original source code of Bitcoin - 2009
Since then, one of the developers' concerns has been to guarantee that Transactions in the network can be as small as possible without this threatening the stability of the network. This is intended to allow Bitcoin users to make micropayments without having to spend more on transaction fees than on micropayment as such. A situation that has not always been very successful. Hence, to resolve it, options such as lightning Network o followed.
Blockchain reminder: transactions
When we make one transaction in Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, its authenticity needs to be validated. In this way, the network ensures that the transaction is valid and that it is processed reasonably. Those responsible for this are the miners or the network participants (in networks PoS, DPoS, o PoA). They are paid a small fee (transaction fee) for the work of validating the transaction made.
But due to the blockchain working mechanism, there are times when the mining fee may be higher than the actual amount of the transaction. This is related to the concept of inflation. And is that, if there is a high demand for commerce, and there is little capacity to meet it, the transaction fee increases. This is caused because the miners will request a higher payment to quickly prioritize and attend to the transactions.