The currency of Aruba. Currency code (AWG).
AWG (American Wire Gauge) – is an American standardized system for determining diameters or cross-sectional areas of wires.
AWG is expressed as integer value (e.g. 1, 2 or 15) corresponding to a specific dimension (in mm, inches, mm2 or kcmil). Within this system, increasing gauge numbers denote decreasing wire size.
Example: 1 AWG = 42.40 mm2, whereas 28 AWG = 0.32 mm2.
Fig. 1. Approximate ratio (in a suitable scale) of different wire sizes in AWG standard.
AWG standard has been developed at the beginning of the 19th century, with its final version developed in 1957 by Joseph Rogers Brown for Browne & Sharpe - a manufacturer of measuring instruments. AWG is also called Brown and Sharpe wire gauge (B&S).
The inverse order of the AWG is due to the wire production process used at the time the system has been developed. At first, AWG corresponded to the number of drawing operations used to produce a given gauge of wire on the drawing die. A blank with a 160 kcmil cross-sectional area requires 20 drawing operations through successively smaller dies to reach the desired size - a wire with a 1.02 kcmil (20 AWG) cross-sectional area. The gauges below one (0 [1/0], 00 [2/0], 000 [3/0] and 0000 [4/0]) has been introduced at a later date, and the wires with corresponding dimensions were manufactured from blanks, compacts or cast rods with cross-sectional area over 106 kcmil.
Fig. 2. Changes in gauge number after a single draw of the wire through each die: (a) initial wire, (b) to (d) subsequent gauge wires. Example: (a) = 6 AWG → (e) = 10 AWG.
There are 44 gauge sizes: from No. 0000 [4/0] corresponding to the largest wire diameter to No. 40 corresponding to the smallest wire diameter. Each successive gauge number increases cross-sectional area by approx. 20.5% and diameter by approx. 10.25%. The drawing dies used by Brown & Sharpe allowed to reduce the wire diameter by exactly 10.25%.
It leads to the following:
– when the cross-sectional area is doubled, the gauge will decrease by 3, e.g. two No. 12 AWG has the same cross-sectional area as a single No. 9 AWG wire;
– when the diameter of a wire is doubled, the gauge will decrease by 6, e.g. No. 9 AWG wire is about twice the diameter of No. 15 AWG wire;
– when the diameter of a wire is tripled, the gauge will decrease by 10;
– when the diameter of a wire is increased fivefold, the gauge will decrease by 14;
– when the diameter of a wire is increased tenfold, the gauge will decrease by 20.
Physical properties of the wire materials also impose certain rules. Aluminium wire has a conductivity of approx. 61% of copper. The aluminium wires has the same resistance as a copper wire smaller by 2 AWG sizes.